Ivan Sergeev was born on 11 May 1995 in Cherepovets, near Vologda, Russia and began his playing career at Strogino Moscow in 2014. He spent the 2016 season on loan at Riga before a switch to Tambov in 2018. The same season he moved to Torpedo Moscow on loan, and later made the move to the historic Moscow club permanent, and Sergeev played 61 matches and scored 35 goals while at Torpedo.
Ivan Sergeev transferred to Krylia Sovetov in August 2020 and in his first season for the Samara club the striker scored 40 goals in 39 games, firing Krylia to the second tier title and back to the Russian Premier Liga, whilst setting a new FNL record He also bagged three goals in seven matches as Krylia made their way to the Russian Cup final. In the first half of the 2021/22 season Sergeev scored six league and two Russian Cup goals before becoming a Zenit player in January 2022.