Denis Adamov was born on 20 February 1998 in Ulyanovsk and joined the Krasnodar academy at the age of 12. He made his first team debut in September 2017 in the Russian Cup, with an RPL debut coming in the summer of 2020, coming on in the first half of the game against Dynamo Moscow after a red card for Matvei Safonov.
Adamov moved to Sochi on a permanent deal in the winter of 2020, and won his first team spot in the second part of the 2021/22 season ahead of Soslan Dzhanaev and Kolya Zabolotny.
In the 2022/23 season Adamov played 17 RPL games for Sochi as the Southern club finished mid-table in the league.
He joined Zenit in the summer of 2023.